Martes, 13 Noviembre, 2018

Humans first settled in Australia as early as 65000 years ago

Humans first settled in Australia as early as 65000 years ago Humans first settled in Australia as early as 65000 years ago
Orlondo Matamoros | Julio 21, 2017, 21:16

Writing in the journal Nature, the researchers said: "The settlement of Madjedbebe around 65,000 years ago ... sets a new minimum age for the human colonisation of Australia and the dispersal of modern humans out of Africa and across south Asia". The original dating of the site at 50,000 years with thermoluminescence in 1990-making this Australia's oldest site at the time-left a lot of archaeologists wondering about the site and dating technique, but no further publications or work was completed on the site, and the artefacts were still sitting in the museum largely unanalyzed.

The date means that Aboriginal people roamed Australia during the megafauna era, adding to the theory that they played a part in the extinction of giant native animals.

The date when humans first came to Australia is contested, with estimates ranging anywhere from 47,000 to 60,000 years ago. Disturbing human remains is a very sensitive and contentious topic in Australia and it is regrettable that we had to disturb them on this occasion.

The finding is based on a treasure trove of thousands of Aboriginal artefacts unearthed in the Northern Territory rock shelter called Madjedbebe, surrounded by World Heritage-listed Kakadu National Park.

Located 300 kilometres east of Darwin in Mirarr Country, the Madjedbebe rock shelter sits at the base of the Arnhem Land escarpment on a sandy plain.

Justin O'Brien, chief executive of the Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, which represents the Mirarr clan, echoed this point. Researchers had both a memorandum of understanding and a contract with the community, which gave control to the Mirarr as senior custodians, oversight of the excavation and curation of the finds.

"The fundamental aspects of technology, such as axes, grindstones and the production of ochre to produce art goes from the present right the way [back]", Dr Clarkson, who was the lead author of the study, said.

Humans first settled in Australia as early as 65000 years ago

Labs in Australia used OSL to identify the age range, Marwick explained. Their result? The tools were roughly 50,000 to 60,000 years old.

Featured image of Madjedbebe site with excavation in progress. Follow him on Facebook and Twitter for updates and his random thoughts on the latest trends in gaming, tech, and comic books.

Previous methods of dating artefacts relied on a technique called radiocarbon dating. Because organic matter turns into gases at high heat, a loss of mass indicated how much matter was in a given sample. Earlier studies suggested human arrival in Australia corresponded with the extinction of multiple species.

So what's the ruckus? It was also discovered that humans lived alongside Australia's megafauna. Creatures including giant versions of birds, echidnas and wombats, and tree-dwelling lions went extinct about 45,000 years ago.

Since the 1990s, however, a growing number of studies - increasingly driven by genetic evidence - have painted a very different picture of human evolution and migration. Scientific evidence suggests that modern humans first reached Europe approximately 48,000 to 40,000 years ago, encountering groups of their Neanderthal kin who were already living there. In an email he told The New Daily: "I think we just don't have enough genomic evidence to say much at all". Mirrar's helped the researchers on the site at Madjedbebe by finding materials and aiding in excavation procedures.

'There was one on the surface, another further down that we dated at 10,000 years.